2018 was a year of change for South Africa, with former President Jacob Zuma resigning to hand over power to President Cyril Ramaphosa.
Ramaphosa was quick to make changes at state-owned enterprises like Eskom, SAA and the SABC, with new boards and leadership being appointed at these institutions.
Although these changes stopped some of the rot, they are still facing bankruptcy and are in dire need of bailouts to keep operating.
2018 was also the year when load-shedding made a comeback and cabinet reshuffles were linked to state capture.
On the tech front there were many developments, with 5G starting to gain momentum, Netflix starting to hurt DStv, and digital banks trying to disrupt the old guard.
Here are South Africa’s biggest tech stories of 2018.
In June, Rain Mobile launched commercial data packages with no contracts or regular monthly fees, and data that never expires.
Vodacom and MTN shows what 5G can do
MultiChoice stopped broadcasting ANN7 on DStv after its contract ended on 20 August 2018.
A MyBroadband investigation revealed that unlawful WASP subscription resulted in disappearing airtime.
MultiChoice South Africa revealed in June that it had lost many DStv Premium subscribers during the past financial year due to increased competition from Netflix.
Many South African telecommunications companies have announced jobs cuts in 2018, including Telkom, Liquid Telecom, and Internet Solutions.
In November President Cyril Ramaphosa announced that the Department of Communications and the Department of Telecommunications and Postal Services will be merged.
Stella Ndabeni-Abrahams heads up the new merged department.
Financial services provider Liberty was hit by an IT systems breach where hackers obtained sensitive data about top clients.
In May, a South African database containing sensitive personal data which originated from a traffic fine platform was leaked online.
The National Assembly passed the Cybercrimes and Cybersecurity Bill, which introduces new laws about social media messages with penalties that include up to three years in jail.